iD Bladder is an online resource providing information on PD-L1 testing in patients with bladder cancer, including evidence to support the importance of testing and useful guidance on how and when to test.

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy has been associated with antitumour activity in patients with UC.1–4

Recent studies have suggested a role for PD-L1 expression in identifying patients more likely to benefit from immunotherapy-based treatment regimens.1–3

Several IHC assays are available to stain samples for PD-L1 expression.5 Scoring algorithms are applied to stained samples to classify them as PD-L1 high or low/negative. These algorithms are specific to the intended immunotherapy.6–10


  • 2L Second-line
  • CE-IVD Conformité Européene (European Conformity) in vitro diagnostic
  • CPS Combined positive score
  • FFPE Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded
  • IC Tumour-infiltrating immune cell
  • IHC Immunohistochemistry
  • ORR Objective response rate
  • PD-1 Programmed cell death-1
  • PD-L1 Programmed cell death ligand-1
  • QC Quality control
  • TC Tumour cell
  • TURBT Transurethral bladder tumour resection
  • UC Urothelial carcinoma
  • US FDA US Food and Drug Administration


An online resource for understanding the benefits of diagnostic testing in lung cancer.


An online resource to provide up-to-date information on PD-L1 testing.



  1. Rosenberg JE, et al. Lancet 2016;387:1909–20
  2. Powles T, et al. JAMA Oncol 2017;3:e172411
  3. Apolo AB, et al. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:2117–26
  4. Balar AV, et al. Lancet Oncol 2017;389:67–76
  5. IASLC atlas of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry testing in lung cancer. Edited by Tsao MS, et al. 2017. Available at: (accessed July 2018)
  6. Dako. PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx [package insert]. September 2017. Available at: (accessed July 2018)
  7. Agilent PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx for UC website. Available at: (accessed July 2018)
  8. VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay website. Available at: (accessed July 2018)
  9. VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay website. Available at: (accessed July 2018)
  10. Ventana website. Media release (28 Sept 2017). Available at: (accessed July 2018)